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消化科——胃癌

发表时间:2019-8-31  浏览次数:275  
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Stomach Cancer
Stomach cancer, also known as gastric cancer, is cancer developing from the lining of the stomach(胃黏膜). Early symptoms(症状)may include heartburn(烧心), upper abdominal pain, nausea(恶心) and loss of appetite. Later signs and symptoms may include weight loss, yellowing of the skin and whites of the eyes, vomiting(呕吐), difficulty swallowing, and blood in the stool(便血)among others. The cancer may spread from the stomach to other parts of the body, particularly the liver, lungs, bones, lining of the abdomen andlymph nodes(淋巴结).
The most common cause is infection by the bacterium Helicobacter pylori(幽门螺杆菌), which accounts for more than 60% of cases. Certain types of H. pylori have greater risks than others. Other common causes include eating pickled vegetables and smoking. About 10% of cases run in families and between 1% and 3% of cases are due to genetic syndromes(遗传综合征)inherited from a person's parents such as hereditary diffuse(弥漫型)gastric cancer. Most cases of stomach cancers are gastric carcinomas(癌). This type can be divided into a number of subtypes. Lymphomas(淋巴瘤)and mesenchymal tumors(间质瘤)may also develop in the stomach. Most of the time, stomach cancer develops in stages over years. Diagnosis is usually bybiopsy(活检)done during endoscopy(内窥镜). This is followed by medical imaging to determine if the disease has spread to other parts of the body. Japan and South Korea, two countries that have high rates of the disease, screen for stomach cancer.
(From Wikipedia)
Glossary
the lining of the stomach 胃黏膜
heartburn
Br[ˈhɑ:tbɜ:n]Am[ˈhɑ:rtbɜ:rn]
烧心
Heartburn, also known as acid indigestion, is a burning sensation in the central chest or upper central abdomen.
blood in stool 便血
The term "blood in stool" is usually not used to describe fecal occult blood, which refers to blood that is not visible and thus is found only after chemical testing is performed.
lymph node
Br[lɪmf nəud] Am[lɪmf nod]
淋巴结
A lymph node is an oval- or kidney-shaped organ of the lymphatic system, present widely throughout the body including the armpit and stomach and linked by lymphatic vessels.
lymphoma
Br[lɪmˈfəʊmə]Am[lɪmˈfoʊmə]
淋巴瘤
Lymphoma is a group of blood cell tumors that develop from lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell).
diffusion
Br[dɪ'fju:ʒn] Am[dɪˈfjuʒən]
弥散性
Diffusionis the net movement of molecules or atoms from a region of high concentration (or high chemical potential) to a region of low concentration (or low chemical potential).
mesenchyme
Br['mezənkaɪm] Am['mes'mezənˌkaɪm]
间质
Mesenchyme is a type of tissue characterized by loosely associated cells that lack polarity and are surrounded by a large extracellular matrix(细胞外基质).
endoscopy
Br[enˈdɒskəpi]Am[enˈdɑ:skəpi]
内窥镜
Endoscopy means looking inside and typically refers to looking inside the body for medical reasons using an endoscope,an instrument used to examine the interior of a hollow organ or cavity of the body.

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