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商务合同的英语翻译词汇与句型特点

发表时间:2018-12-6  浏览次数:87  
字体大小: 【小】 【中】 【大】
1. 选词正式准确

合同中的选词要求极为严格,以显得郑重,严肃。

Any event or circumstance beyond the control of the Parties shall be deemed an event of Force Majeure and shall include, but not be restricted to, fire, storm, flood, earthquake, explosion, war, rebellion, insurrection, epidemic and quarantine restriction.

双方无法控制的事件或情况应视为不可抗力事件,这包括但不限于火灾,风灾,水灾,地震,爆炸,战争,叛乱,暴动,传染病及瘟疫。

2 多用术语商务 合同中兼有法律和商业用语。

3 同义词连用合同行文的主要特点之一就是用“and”或“or”把两个或以上短语连接起来。The Seller shall sell and the Buyer shall buy the following described property upon the terms and conditions hereinafter set forth within this contract.

按照合同中所提之条款条件,卖方将出售而买方将购进以下商品。

Party A acknowledges and agrees that the technology it will receive from Party B during the term of this Contract shall be kept secrete and confidential.

甲方承认并同意在合同期内由乙方提供的技术应属保密。

This agreement is made and entered into by and between Party A and Party B.

该合同由甲方和乙方共同制定。

The Buyer reserves the right to investigate or inspect at any time whether the products, qualifications, or facilities meet the Contract requirements,

买方保留随时对产品,质量或设施是否符合合同要求进行检查的权利。

4.多用名称 为避免歧义,合同中尽量用名词代替代词。Example:

If the Seller determines the performance has not been completed satisfactorily and in conformance with this Contract, the performance bond may be retained by the Seller until the Seller can determine damages caused by the lack of performance.

卖方如果确定履行情况不令人满意或与合同不符,在他能够确定履行不善所造成的损失之前可以扣留履约保证金。

5.多用副词 合同中常用的副词:

hereafter今后, 从此以后; Thereon在其上/thereupon关于:关于那件事;关于那/whereupon 在哪上面,因此; Thereunder .在其下; Hereto到此为止; Whereto向那里, 到那个地方; Hereinabove在上文; hereinbefore在上文中; Hereinafter在下文中; hereinbelow在下文

6 在合同中,shall为情态动词,表示强烈的义务关系。Examples:

The date of registration of the cooperative venture company shall be the date of the establishment of the board of directors of the cooperative venture company.

合资公司登记注册之日,为董事会正式成立之日。

The amendment of the contract or other appendices shall come into force only after a written agreement has been signed by Party A and Part B and approved by the original examination and approval authority.

只有在甲方和乙方共同签署书面协议,并且经原审批机构批准,合同及其它附件的修订才能生效。

This Contract shall be written in English in four copies. Each party shall keep two copies.

本合同应以英文写成,一式四份,双方各持两份。

7.合同专项词汇

合同中常用的专项词汇:Whereas鉴于…, 但是;相反; In witness whereof特此作证 ,以资证明; Prior to在…之前; In accordance with与...一致, 依照; In compliance with .遵照,和...一致,按照; Provided that如果,只要,倘若; Subject to以…为条件,以…据, 易受...的

第二节 商务合同的句法特点

1. 多用陈述句 2. 多用条件句

In case a third party brings a charge of infringement, licensor shall be responsible for dealing with the third party and bear full legal and financial responsibilities which may arise.

若第三方起诉侵权,出让方应负责处理第三方事务,并承担全部相应的法律和财政责任。

3多用现在式Example:

Licensor guarantees that licensor is legitimate owner of the know-how supplied by licensor to licensee in accordance with the stipulations of the contract, and that licensor is lawfully in a position to transfer the know-how to licensee.

出让人担保自己合法拥有按合同规定由他转让给受让人的该项技术,把该项技术转让给受让人是合法的。

4 主动语态表责任Example:

Party A shall bear all expenses for advertising and publicity.甲方应承担所有广告和推销费用。

The employer may ask bidders individually for clarification of their tenders, including breakdowns of unit prices.

业主可要求投标者就其标书作出解释,包括单位价格细目表。

The Contractor shall supply to the Engineer four copies of all Drawings, Specification and other documents.

承包商应向工程师提供所有的图纸,规格和其它文件,一式四份。

5 多用长句

(1)特长句子Example:

In the event of a Subcontractor having undertaken towards the Contractor in respect of the work executed; or the goods, materials, Plant or services supplied by such Subcontractor, any continuing obligation extending for a period exceeding that of the Defects Liability Period under the Contract, the Contractor shall at any time, after the expiration of such period, assign to the Employer, at the Employer’s request and cost, the benefit of such obligation for the unexpired duration thereof.

如果分包商在所进行的工作,或他提供的货物,材料,工程设备或服务等方面,在合同规定的缺陷责任期结束后继续为承包商承担义务,承包商在缺陷责任期后的任何时间须按雇主的要求并由雇主承担费用,把未满延长期限的此类义务的利益转让给雇主。

During the validity of this Agreement, Party A refrains from offering the above-mentioned goods to other merchants with ports in Country X as ports of destination, while Party B undertakes to refrain from purchasing, pushing sales off or acting as agents for the commodity of other suppliers the same as or similar to that stated in Article 2 and guarantees not to transship in any way the said goods supplied by Party A to any area, where exclusivity or sale agency has been granted by Party A.

在本协议有效期内,甲方不得将上述商品提供给以X为目的港的其它商人,而乙方不得购买,促销,或代理与第二条规定的产品相同或相似的其它供应商的产品,并且保证不将甲方提供的上述商品转运到甲方指派独家代理人或销售代理人的任何地方。

(2) 复杂状语的使用Example:

If any loss or damage happens to the Works, or any part thereof, or materials or Plant for incorporation therein, during the period for which the Contractor is responsible for the care thereof, from any cause whatever, other than the risks defined in Clause 53.1.1, the Contractor shall, at his own cost, rectify such loss or damage so that the permanent Works conform in every aspect with the provisions of the Contract to the satisfaction of the Engineer.

在承包商负责照管期间,如果工程或其任何部分,或所用材料或设备对公司造成任何损失或损坏,除第53.1.1条规定的风险外,不论出于何种原因,承包商须出资对这些损失或损坏进行弥补,以使永久工程在各方面都符合合同的规定,达到工程师满意的程度。

If, before the Time for completion of the whole of the Works or, if applicable, any Section, a Taking-Over Certificate has been issued for any part of the Works or of a Section, the liquidated damages for delay in completion of the remainder of the Works or of that Section shall, for any period of delay after the date stated in such Taking-Over Certificate, and in the absence of alternative provisions in the Contract, be reduced in the Proportion which the value of the Part so certified bears to the value for the whole of the Works or Section, as applicable.

在整个工程或区段的竣工期限之前,如果已对工程或区段的任何部分签发了移交证书,在合同中无替代条款的情况下,该工程或区段剩余部分拖到该移交证书注明的日期之后尚未完工,由此产生的违约偿金应该按已签发部分的价值在整个工程或区段的价值中占的比例减少。

第三节 商务合同与协议的翻译

(1)词性转换Example:

Prior to commencement of any work under this Contract and during the period of the Contract, the Purchaser shall provide proof of insurance coverage required by this Contract.

在本合同各项目开工之前以及在合同期间,买方应按合同要求出具保险范围证明。

(2)语态转换Example:

The measurement, gross weight, net weight and the cautions such as “Do not stack up and down”, “Keep away from moisture”, “Handle with care” shall be stenciled on the surface of each package with fadeless pigment.

在每件包装上必须用不褪色颜料印上尺寸,毛重,净重以及“请勿倒置”,“保持干燥”, “小心轻放”等警示语。

3 省略 (1)省略同义词

在翻译中,英文中的重复用词可以省略。For example:

The Seller shall be liable for any damage and loss of the goods attributable to the inadequate or improper packing.

由于包装不当造成的货物缺损由卖方负责。

Licensee agrees that licensee shall keep the know-how supplied by licensor under secret and confidential conditions within the validity period of the Contract.

受让人同意在合同有效期内对出让人提供的技术保密。

(2) 省略名词 英文中重复的名词可以省略。For example:

In the course of arbitration, the contract shall be continuously executed by both Parties except the part of the contract which is under arbitration.

在仲裁过程中,除仲裁中的那部分合同外,其它部分应由双方继续执行。

5) In two visits to the United States, Jamaica’s Prime Minister, in response to the World Bank’s repeated urges, suggested the message to the US policy makers for the good of both countries, particular in the matter of bilateral monetary affairs.

在世界银行的反复催促下,为了牙买加和美国的利益,特别是双边金融事务方面的利益,牙买加总理两次访美时都向美国决策者提出了这些建议。

(3)省略副词 Thereof 和hereof 一类的副词在翻译中可以省略。Example:

All disputes arising from the performance of this Contract shall, through amicable negotiations, be settled by the Parties hereto.

由此合同履行而导致的所有争议都应由双方友好协商解决。

4 重复

英文中,很多结构,尤其是在并列句中,是可以省略的。但在汉语中,为了对称,很多时候要将已知事务予以重现。For example:

The Seller may terminate this Contract by oral or written notice to the Purchaser upon its beach as determined by the Seller or at other times when deemed necessary by the Seller. Upon such notice, the Purchaser shall cease all operations on and immediately leave, and not return to, the Seller’s property unless otherwise provided by the Seller.

卖方确定买方违约或认为有必要终止合同时,可以用口头或者书面通知买方的方式终止此合同。一收到这一通知,若卖方没有其它规定,买方就应停止一切工作并立即离开卖方的房地产并不得返回。

第四节 翻译技巧(1)长句的翻译

1 顺译法

Party A and Party B agree to jointly form a Co-operation Venture Company to introduce the Patent and engage in production cooperation in accordance with the technical know-how specified in the Patent.

甲乙双方同意双方共同成立一家合作经营企业来引进专利,并按专利提供技术进行合作生产。

2 逆译法

The Sellers shall not be held responsible if they fail, owing to force Majeure cause or causes, to make delivery within the time stipulated in this Sales Contract or can not deliver the goods.

因不可抗力原因使卖方不能发货或在本销售合同规定的期限内交货,卖方不负责任。

3 分译法

The Tenderer and any of his representatives will be granted permission by the Employer or his agent SU company to enter upon its premises and lands for the purpose of such inspection by prior arrangement, but only upon the express condition that the Tenderer and his representatives, will release and indemnify the Employer or his agent SU company and its personnel from and against all liability in respect thereof and will be responsible for personal injury (whether fatal or otherwise), loss of or damage to property and any other loss, damage, costs and expenses however caused, which, but for exercise of such permission, would not have arisen.

根据事先安排,业主或其代理人SU公司会允许投标者及其代表到工程现场检查,但唯一的条件是投标人或其代理人不得要求业主或其代理人SU公司及其人员承担这一检查方面的责任,并且应对若不进行这一检查就不会发生的(致命或非致命的)人身伤害和财产缺损以及其它损失,损害和所发生的开支费用承担责任。

2 定语从句(1)限定性定语从句

It will also have its own offices, associates or agents in the countries with which it trades.

它在与它进行贸易的国家里也拥有办事处,合伙人或代理商。

Except in cases where the insurance is covered by the Buyer as arranged, insurance is to be covered by the Sellers with a Chinese insurance company.

除按约定由买方投保者外,其它的由卖方向中国保险公司投保。

The Equipment and Material which are carefully and properly packed in the best and stable condition according to the figures and characteristics of the Equipment and Material may be expected to withstand long-distance sea and inland transportation and numerous handlings.

这些设备和材料按其形状和特性精心包装,固定牢实可靠,可望经受长途海上和内陆运输和反复装卸。

(2)非限定性定语从句 灵活翻译,翻译时一般保持在原位。

The Buyer shall establish a Letter of Credit before the above-mentioned time, failing which, the Seller shall have the right to rescind this Contract upon the arrival of the notice at Buyer or to accept whole or part of this Contract non fulfilled by the Buyer, or to lodge a claim for the direct losses sustained, if any.

买方须在上述日期前开立信用证,否则卖方有权通知买方取消合同,或接受买方未履行的合同的全部或部分,并就遭受的直接损失提出索赔。

句中有非限定性定语从句时,可以将句中拆分,翻译成两个并列句。

The manufacturer desires to appoint some overseas agents for its business abroad, who will work on commission.

厂商想指定一些海外代理负责其国外业务,他们的工作报酬按佣金支付。

有些非限定性定语从句实际上表示目的或结果,可以翻译成状语从句。

It is necessary for us to conduct amicable negotiation on the quality discrepancy, which may help sustain our long-term cooperation.

我们必须就质量异议进行友好协商,这有助于维持我们的长期合作。

(2)转换语序

I am contacting you because I can help you improve the pulling power of your advertising without increasing your advertising budget.

我们与贵方联系是因为我们可以帮助贵方提高广告的吸引力而不增加广告预算。

(3)转换状语从句类型

Where there is any quality discrepancy, the seller needs to look into it right away.

倘若有质量异议,卖方需要立即调查。

The Seller may, when it deems it reasonable and in the best interest of the Seller, allow the Purchaser to continue performance under the Contract.

若卖方认为合理且符合卖方最佳利益,可以允许买方继续履行合同。

No modification of this Contract or waiver of its terms and conditions shall be effective unless they are made in writing and signed by the parties.

合同修订或条款条件取缔以双方书面形式签字为准。

1 本合同有效期从合同生效之日算起共10年,有效期满后,本合同自动失效。

The contract shall be valid for 10 years from the effective date of the contract, on the expiry of the validity term of the contract, the contract shall automatically become void.

2 买卖双方经协商同意按下列条款成交。

The underlined Seller and Buyer have agreed to close the following transaction according to the terms and conditions set forth as follows:

3 若买方提出索赔,凡属品质异议须于货到目的口岸之日起30天内提出,凡属数量异议须于货到目的口岸之日起15天内提出。

In case of quality discrepancy, claim should be filed by the Buyer within 30 days after the arrival of the goods at port of destination, while for quantity discrepancy, claims should be filed by the Buyer within 15 days after the arrival of the goods at port of destination.

4 买方应用不可撤销信用证支付该卖方运费。

The Delivery Payment shall be paid by Buyer to Seller under an irrevocable letter of credit.

5 本合同为中英文两种文本,两种文本具有同等效力。

This Contract is executed in two counterparts each in Chinese and English, each of which shall be deemed equally authentic.

6 因乙方违背本合同的规定而产生的违约金,损坏赔偿金和其它相关费用,甲方可在保证金中抵扣。

In case party B breaches this contract, party A has right to deduct the default fine, compensation for damage or any other expense from the deposit.

7 本合同附件是本合同的有效组成部分,与本合同具有同等法律效力。

Any annex is the integral part of this contract. The annex and the contract are equally valid.

8 由于一般公认的人力不可抗拒原因而不能交货或装船延迟,卖方不负责任。

The Seller shall not be held responswible for late delivery or non-delivery of the goods owing to generally recognized “Force Majuere” causes.

9 一切因执行本合同所发生与本合同有关之争执,双方应友好协商解决。

All disputes in connection with this Contract or the execution thereof shall be amicably settled through amicable negotiation.

10 本合同采用一次性支付使用费的方式,计价的货币为美元。

The amount of the payable Royalty for the Program will be a one-time charge. The currency shall be in US dollars.

11. The royalties shall be calculated on the basis of Net Selling Price of such products.

版税应该根据产品的销售净价计算。

12. Owner shall have no obligation to grant extension if delays were not excusable delays, or otherwise resulted, directly or indirectly, from the Contractor’s breach of this Contract.

如果是无理由的,或者直接或间接由承包商违约造成无法如期竣工,业主没有义务予以宽限。

13. It is the responsibility of the Owner to take reasonable steps to provide a work area free of household obstructions, and to remove or protect household items in areas where it may be reasonably anticipated by the Owner that they may be subject to dust, damage or vibrations.

业主有责任采取合理措施保证居家环境畅通无阻,并且搬掉或者保护可能受尘,受损或者受震动的用品。

14. Seller shall deliver each Shipment to the applicable Place of Delivery on or before the applicable Delivery Date set forth in the Project Schedule.

卖方应该在工程计划表中所规定的交货日期之日或之前发送每批货物。

15. This Contract shall terminate and expire automatically upon the full performance or discharge of all the obligations of the Parties hereunder.

双方全部责任一经履行完毕,该合同自动终止。

16. Immediately after completion of loading of goods on board the vessel the Seller shall advise the Buyer by cable of the Contract number, name of goods, quantity or weight loaded, invoice value, name of vessel, port of shipment, sailing date and port of destination.

货物装船后卖方应该立即发电报告知买方合同号,品名,装运数量或重量,发票金额,船名,装运港,启航日期以及目的港。

17. In case the quality, quantity or weight of the goods be found not in conformity with those stipulated in this Contract after re-inspection by the China Commodity Inspection Bureau within 60 days after arrival of goods at the port of destination, the Buyer shall return the goods to or lodge claims against the Seller for compensation of losses upon the strength of Inspection Certificate issued by the said Bureau, with the exception of those claims for which the insurers or owners of the carrying vessel are liable.

货到目的口岸60天内经中国商品检验局复验,如发现品质或数量或重量与本合同规定不符时,除属于保险公司或船方负责者外,买方凭中国商品检验局出具的检验证明书向卖方提出退货或索赔。

18. It is mutually agreed that for the quality of the contracted goods in this category, the Inspection Certificate issued by the China Commodity Inspection Bureau after inspection the goods within 90 days from the date of arrival at the port of destination shall be taken as final and binding upon both parties.

双方同意本合同所订立此类商品之品质应以货物到达目的口岸后90天内经中国商品检验局检验并以该局所签发之检验证为最终依据,双方均遵守之。

19. If insurance for additional amount and/or for other insurance terms is required by the Buyer, prior notice to this effect must reach the Sellers before shipment and is subject to the Sellers’ agreement, and the extra insurance premium shall be for the Buyers’ account.

买方如需增加保险额及/或需加其它保险,可于装船前提出,经卖方同意后代为投保,其费用由买方负担。

20. The Parties, adhering to principle of equality and mutual benefit and through friendly consultation, desire to exert all their efforts in co-operating with each other and agree to jointly invest to set up a joint venture enterprise TEDA, Tianjin, P.R. China for the purpose of expanding international economic cooperation and technological exchange on a mutual beneficial and profitable basis.

双方本着平等互利原则通过友好协商,愿尽全力相互合作,共同投资,在中华人民共和国天津市经济技术开发区建立合资经营企业;在互惠互利的基础上,扩展国际经济合作和技术交流。




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